Saturday, June 10, 2023

10 Best Economics Project Topics for Class 12th and Much More

So, you are seeking economics project topics for class 12th. Well, let Duniakagyan help you out.

Economics is an extensive subject. It covers everything from human experiences and behaviors to the economy as a whole. As the world has grown more complex, economics now includes elements of sociology, technology, philosophy, and other subjects. We can safely say that modern economics is much more than studying the production, distribution, and consumption of products & services. Instead, it’s a part of our personal and professional lives and a gateway to limitless possibilities.

In short, economics is an important subject in high and senior secondary schools. Here’s why.

1. Understanding the Economy:

When taught in schools, economics helps develop people with an in-depth understanding of how the economy operates at micro and macro levels. As a student, you get to develop a knowledge of some complex concepts, such as supply and demand, market structures, inflation, international trade, globalization, unemployment, financial policies, and economic indicators among others.

2. Prepares Informed Citizens:

As a subject, economics creates informed citizens who know how public policy and the economy go hand in hand. You, as a student, develop a deeper understanding of the economic challenges faced by the country, such as poverty, unemployment, taxation, and income disparity. The understanding allows you to rationally analyze different economic policies, and make educated voting decisions.

3. Develop a Global Perspective:

We are living in a globalized world where economies are connected and interdependent. Economics helps you understand economic globalization, how it impacts different countries, the opportunities it offers, and the challenges it faces. Therefore, you end up developing a global perspective.

4. Promotes Finance Management:

Economics even teaches you how to manage your personal finances and prepare for the future. You learn how to grow your income, create a budget, save for the future, invest at the right age in the right places, and when and how to borrow. This knowledge can be beneficial in the long term.

5. Helps Develop Rationality:

When studying economics, you learn to assess and analyze real-world issues and find solutions for the same by applying logical reasoning and relevant economics principles. That helps you develop a problem-solving mindset, which is important for success in social, personal, and professional life.

6. Gives Headstart to a Career:

If you are interested in pursuing a career in economics, business, finance, or related disciplines, studying economics at the senior secondary level is important. Also, the concepts you study here are vital for a career as an entrepreneur, public policy expert, lawyer, journalist, and other roles that require financial decision-making. Think of economics as a jumping-off point for great careers.

While the importance of economics as a subject cannot be denied, why do you need to complete an economics project?

An economics project can help you understand complex concepts and develop a life-long love for the subject. That’s why CBSE requires class 12 students to create an economics project. While the written exam accounts for 80% of marks, the rest 20% is decided through internal assessment. As such, an impressive project can help you to achieve better internal assessment grades, which will improve your overall score. With admissions to important courses being decided by a very narrow margin, these extra marks can help you get admission to the desired course and college.

CBSE Guidelines for Economics Project for Class 12 (2021-22) 

CBSE lists the following objective of the class 12th economics projects:

  • Produce deeper personal inquiry, initiate action, and reflect on knowledge, skills, views, etc., acquired in classes 11 and 12.
  • Analyze and evaluate real-world economic scenarios using theoretical constructs and arguments
  • Demonstrate the application of critical and creative thinking skills and abilities to produce an independent and extended piece of work
  • Follow-up aspects in which learners have an interest & develop the communication skills to argue logically
According to CBSE, the student can work on the project in the following sequence:
  • Step-1: Choose a title/topic
  • Step-2: Collect the research material/data
  • Step-3: Organize material/data
  • Step-4: Present material/data
  • Step-5: Analyze the material/data for the conclusion
  • Step-6: Draw the relevant conclusion
  • Step-7: Present the Project Work
Per CBSE, the economics project should include the following specifications:  
  • Introduction of topic/title
  • Identifying the causes, events, consequences, and/or remedies
  • Various stakeholders and the effect on each of them
  • Advantages and disadvantages of situations or issues identified
  • Short-term and long-term implications of strategies suggested in the course of research
  • Validity, reliability, appropriateness, and relevance of data used for research work and for presentation in the project file
  • Presentation and writing that is concise and coherent in the project file
  • Citation of the materials in the file in the footnotes, resources section, bibliography, etc.

Things to consider when creating an economics project for class 12th

Keeping CBSE guidelines in mind, here is a complete strategy to choose and execute the best economics project topics for class 12th.

  • Choose the topic wisely: 

Economics is a broad subject, giving you plenty of topics. However, it’s advisable to choose carefully, as the choice of your topic will determine how good the project is and how much time and effort it will entail. So, keep the following tips in mind when opting for the topic.

  1. The topic should have ample material to research, analyze and present.
  2. Working on a topic is easier and more rewarding if it interests you.
  3. Having some prior knowledge of the topic can result in quick output.
  4. If the topic is related to your course, expect to score well in your written exam.
  5. Choosing a more straightforward topic can help you prepare well for Viva’s voice.
  6. Avoid choosing a lengthy topic if you are short on time.
  • Research, Research & Research: 

Regardless of your economics project topic, there’s no alternative to research. You need to research sufficient information to present in your project and stay prepared for the viva voce. Mind you, the more in-depth the research is, the better the topic will evolve, with data and stats pouring in from all directions. To start with, it’s wise to focus on descriptive research.

For example, if your topic is “The Digital India Movement,” you gather information on the characteristics of the movement. That’s descriptive research for you. Once done, it’s time to explore its causes, effects, and other relevant information. Getting into the details is recommended to draw a logical conclusion based on factual data. Plus, stats make the project look authentic.

Tip: For research, rely only on credible books and web resources. The last thing you want is to produce faulty information. Also, mark the resources you access information from for the bibliography.

  • Organize the Information: 

After the research part, it’s time to organize all the information you gathered. Again, the gathered information in the Digital India Movement project should have the following sequence:

  • Introduction
  • Characteristics
  • How it works
  • Advantages
  • Challenges
  • Future

Tips: Ensure the introduction contains the launch date, vision, objectives, and other relevant information. Also, stuff in plenty of stats and data to build your argument and draw a conclusion.

  • Present it Well:

If you fail to present the researched information well, the quality of your economics project for class 12 will suffer, and so will your overall score. Here is how to keep the presentation above par.

  1. Explain the topic in detail without dragging the information or resorting to verbose.
  2. Define each term you use in the project to make it easier for everyone to understand.
  3. Prefer using an active voice, staying consistent with the tense, and avoiding negativity in language.
  4. Present information through pictures, figures, graphs, and infographics wherever possible.
  5. Avoid over-decorating the file. Instead, keep it neat, simple, and professional.

Don’t forget to include the following components in the same sequence:

  1. Front Page: Think of it as the window to your project, featuring Project Title, Author Name, School Name, Teacher’s Name, Contact information, and a concise introduction to the topic.
  2. Acknowledgment: Herein, you thank your teacher, school, or any person or institution who helped you at any project stage.
  3. Certificate: A dually signed certificate adds credibility to your project. Here’s a sample certificate:

This is to certify that …….(your name)…….. of class 12 has completed his/her project on topic …….(project name)…….. under the guidance of Mr./Miss/Mrs. ……….(teacher’s name)……. during the academic session….(year)……. in line with the CBSE guidelines.

Utilize the space below this for the signatures of the external examiner & your teacher.

4. Content Index: You should list the project’s contents, preferably in table form. Also, state page numbers alongside the subtopic.

5. The Project Work: It is the soul of your project where you present info and shape arguments.

6. Bibliography: Last but not least, state all references you used for the project.

Top 10 Economics Project Topics for Class 12th

Here are the top 10 best economics project topics for class 12th students.

1. Demonetization: The Best Economics Project Topics

DemonetizationOn 8 November 2016, the Government of India stopped printing and circulation of ₹500 and ₹1000 banknotes. From that day onwards, these currency notes were seized as legal tender and replaced by new banknotes of ₹500 and ₹2,000. Following the announcement, panic started with people queuing outside banks and ATMs to withdraw new notes or exchange the retired ones.

Demonetization is among the most sought-after economics project topics for 11th and 12th. Why? Well, six years on, the world is still arguing about demonetization’s success. So, you can build an argument for or against it with facts & figures. Plus, the material is plenty for you to research.

What to Include? 

1. Introduction:

You can start by defining demonetization and also give a historical background to it as well. Also, discuss the goals of demonetization in brief with reference to demonetization in other countries, such as the USA, Ghana, Nigeria, Myanmar, the Soviet Union, and Australia at different points in time.

2. Implementation and Policy Details:

In this section, you are free to deal with how the process of demonization unfolded. You can include the measures the government of India took to smoothen the process. These may include withdrawal limits, exchange procedures, new currency introduction, and more. Keep it short and informative.

3. Impact on the Economy:

Now, it’s time to discuss how the move impacted the economy in the short as well as the long term. It’s important to discuss the GDP, inflation, fiscal deficit, employment, and other crucial economic indicators here. Also, don’t forget to detail how the move impacted key sectors, such as agriculture, manufacturing, and services, alongside stakeholders like businesses, consumers, and more.

4. Black Money, Tax Evasion & Corruption:

The demonetization was aimed at countering black money, tax evasion, large-scale corruption, and terror funding. So, you have to dedicate a separate section to discuss all this in detail. Herein, you should also evaluate whether demonetization helped curb all these ills. If yes, then to what extent?

5. Promoting Digital Economy:

If India is quickly emerging as the world leader in digital transactions, it’s due to demonetization. In this section, you can discuss how demonetization pushed India toward a cashless economy. Also, it’s important to provide figures related to the increase in digital payments after demonetization.

6. Criticism of Demonetization:

You might dedicate an entire section to discussing the challenges that demonetization faced. These include stock markets crash, cash crunches, inconvenience to the public, and even deaths. You are also at liberty to elaborate on prominent people and organizations that were against the move.

7. What Demonitezation Taught Us:

This is a crucial section that makes demonetization one of the best economics project topics. Herein, you are, in a way, giving your take on the move. Besides discussing what India learned, you can have a closer look at the policy implications for economic reforms in times to come.

8. Conclusion:

Finally, conclude the project with a summary of your key findings. Also, don’t forget to present a logical conclusion on whether or not demonetization achieved its objectives and at what cost.

Tip: You can add substance to the project and make it more relatable by including real-life examples of individuals or businesses affected by demonetization. Also, include the causes and effects of the 1978 demonetization in India. Feel free to add a “Popular Culture” section to discuss how demonetization influenced popular culture. Mention movies made on demonetization.

2. Digital India: The Best Economics Project Topics

Digital India Movement

It is a government of India initiative to promote digitalization, create a knowledge economy, and democratize access to government services. With the motto, “Power to Empower,” the movement was launched in 2015 and is still active. Digital India is a rewarding economics project topic for classes 10th, 11th, 12th, and beyond. That’s because the topic is extensive and constantly changing as new developments happen rapidly. Also, the movement’s impact is widespread.

What to Include? 
  • Introduction to Digital India
    • Definition & Launch date
    • Objectives
    • Ministries involved
    • Areas of Focus
  • How is it Managed?
    • Approach
    • Methodology
  • Nine Pillars
  • E-Cabinet
    • e-Pragati
    • Bhudhaar
    • e-Panta
    • Loan charge
  • Initiatives
    • Digi-lockers
    • E-Hospitals
    • E-Pathshala
    • BHIM
    • E-Kranti
  • Advantages
  • Challenges
  • Effectiveness
    • Reception
    • Criticism
    • Impact
  • Adoption of the Digital India Project
  • The overall impact of digitalization
  • Digital India and foreign trade

Tip: Try adding as many stats as possible to substantiate your argument. Don’t forget to mention the training and ongoing awareness campaigns, alongside criticism, to present a balanced view.

3. Monopoly: The Best Economics Project Topics


Monopoly refers to the complete domination of a company/firm in a particular market. Since there’s no alternative to the company, consumers are forced to buy from it, usually at higher prices.

Patents, licenses, government policies, and other factors make it hard for other companies to enter and compete in the market. That allows the monopolist to dictate prices and compromise quality.

What to Include? 
  • Introduction to Monopoly 
    • Definition
    • Examples
  • Types of monopoly
    • Simple monopoly
    • Pure monopoly
    • Natural monopoly
    • Legal monopoly
  • Defining features of monopoly
    • Maximized profits
    • No competition
    • High entry barrier
    • High pricing & more
  • Reasons for emergence
    • Licensing
    • Patents
    • Cartels
    • Control of raw materials
  • How to measure monopoly
    • Concentration Index
    • Profit margins
    • Price discrimination policies
  • Demand Curve Under Monopoly
  • How it harms the economy

Tip: Explain in detail terms like oligopoly, monopolistic competition, monopoly rent, and more to add more depth. Also, use real-life examples like Microsoft & Windows and DeBeers & diamonds.

4. Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) 

Import Substitution vs. Export Promotion

Import substitution industrialization (ISI) promotes domestic manufacturing and reduces foreign imports. The idea is to develop self-sufficiency, reduce import reliance, and save foreign currency reserves. The government backs ISI with specific policy initiatives, such as subsidizing manufacturing and implementing laws to protect and incubate domestic industry.

If you are short on time, ISI could be the best economics project topic for class 12th.

What to Include? 
  • Introduction to ISI
    • Definition
    • Objectives
    • Characteristics
  • Origins (from 18th century to modern day) 
  • Protectionist Policies to Promote ISI
    • Subsidization
    • Increase Tariffs
    • Discourage FDI
  • Conceptual Framework & Measures of IS 
  • Local Ownership Import Substituting 
  • Critique of ISI
  • Your take

Tip: Discuss ISI policies implemented by Latin American and African countries and their outcomes. This will help you shape your argument against ISI. You can even compare ISI with export promotion.

5. GST


Goods and Services Tax (GST) is perhaps the most significant and most talked-about indirect tax reform India has made in recent years. It’s an alternative to all indirect taxes that union and state governments levied on the production, sale, and purchase of goods and services at the Indian level. 

While the government introduced GST to transform India into a unified common market, some argue against it. So, you have plenty of scope to research and analyze GST and derive your conclusion. However, it can be a lengthy and complicated topic. So, start early and manage your time well.

What to Include?
  • Introduction to GST
    • Definition
    • Objectives
    • Date of Enactment
    • How is it administered
  • Chronology of GST 
  • Advantages for:
    • Business & Industry
    • Union & State govt.
    • Consumer
  • Disadvantages:
    • Increased tax on SMEs
    • Compliance hassles & more
  • Indirect Taxes Subsumed into GST at:
    • Central level
    • State level
    • Goods not covered in GST
  • Calculation of GST
  • Statistics
    • Revenue collections
    • Returns
  • The reaction of prominent economists 
  • Your take

Tip: In the “Chronology” section, include the Kelkar Task Force (2003) recommendations and all key amendments. Feel free to give a passing reference on the indirect tax reforms starting from 1986. Also, don’t forget to cover subtopics like HSN code, e-Way Bill, and Reverse Charge Mechanism.

6. Foreign Exchange Market

Foreign Exchange Market

Your search for the best economics project topics for class 12th can end with the foreign exchange market. It’s an engaging, valuable, and vast topic. In this globalized, interconnected world, the topic is relevant as well. With plenty of material readily available, there’s immense scope for research.

What to Include? 
  • Introduction to Foreign Exchange Market
    • Definition & Alternate names
    • Total Worth, liquidity
    • Most traded currencies
  • Characteristics
  • Types
    • Spot Forex Markets
    • Forward Forex Markets
    • Futures Forex Markets
  • Constituents of Forex
    • Commercial establishments
    • Central banks
    • Investment management firms
    • Retail forex traders
    • Non-bank forex companies
    • Money transfer/remittance companies
  • Evolution of the currency market economy
    • Adoption of Gold Standard
    • Bretton Woods Standard
    • Forex post WW2
    • Forex post-1973
  • Factors that decide exchange rates
    • Economic factors
    • Political conditions
    • Market psychology
  • Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Forex leverage
  • Risk aversion
  • Carry trade
  • Speculation

Tip: Feel free to touch historical agreements like Bretton Woods Conference, Smithsonian Agreement, Plaza Accord, and Louvre Accord when discussing the evolution of Forex. Also, divide the evolution section into Early, Medieval, Modern & Postmodern periods for better readability.

7. Evolution of the Barter System

Evolution of the Barter System

The barter system traces its roots back to the ancient Mesopotamians around 6000 BC. Phoenicians and Romans later adopted the system to secure grains, weapons, and other necessities.

It’s a simple trading method where the medium of exchange isn’t involved. Instead of using money, one good is swapped directly with the other of similar value. For example, you trade rice for wheat.

The barter system has lost relevance in a globalized world dominated by international trade and foreign exchange. However, tracking the evolution of the barter system can be a learning experience.

What to Include? 
  • Introduction to Barter System
    • Definition
    • Etymology
    • Characteristics
    • The need for bartering
  • Advantages of bartering
    • Simplicity
    • Prevent overexploitation of resources
    • No balance of payments crisis
    • No foreign exchange crisis & more
  • Limitations of Bartering
    • Double coincidence of wants
    • Lacks standard unit
    • Some goods are indivisible
    • Non-existence of deferred payments
    • Storage issues of goods
  • Origin of the Barter system
    • Silent Trade
    • Age of Financial Crisis
    • Organized barter exchange
    • Labor Notes
  • Evolution of money from barter to digital currencies
  • Present day practice of Bartering in Business
  • Your take 

Tips: You can reference popular monetary systems and recent developments like the emergence of cryptocurrencies for an impactful project.

8. Opportunity Cost

Opportunity Cost

Exciting and relevant, Opportunity Cost is one of the best economics project topics for class 12th. The concept applies to ordinary folks, investors, and/or companies when they opt for one option over the other. It’s about calculating the benefits of the overlooked options vis-à-vis the chosen one. The idea is to evaluate every option and finalize the best one accordingly.

What to Include
  • Introduction to Opportunity Cost
    • Definition
    • Importance
  • Factors of Opportunity Cost
    • Price
    • Time
    • Effort
    • Utility
  • How to Calculate Opportunity Cost
  • Types of Opportunity Costs
    • Implicit cost
    • Explicit cost
    • Marginal cost
  • Opportunity cost graph
  • Applications
    • Economic profit versus accounting profit
    • Comparative advantage versus absolute advantage
    • Opportunity cost at the governmental level
  • Consumption patterns

Tips: Explain the opportunity cost with examples from real business scenarios to impact better. Also, touch factors that aren’t included in opportunity costs, notably sunk costs and marginal costs.

9. Human Development Index

Human Development IndexAs one of the best economics project topics for class 12th, the HDI project should cover topics like:

  • HDI briefing
  • Indicators of HDI
  • HDI measurement
  • GDP and HDI

10. Make In India

Make in IndiaMake in India encompasses a wide variety of topics that can be addressed through your projects, such as:

  • Impact of Make in India on aviation, defense, health sectors, etc.
  • Foreign Direct Investment
  • Pros and cons of the scheme
  • Concerns and criticism about the Make in India scheme


Even though economics is a demanding subject, people study it to gain specific valuable skills and create a promising career. Economics is all about matching resources to demand. So when you study it, you analyze the situation, resources, and wants and find solutions accordingly. That helps you develop an analytical and problem-solving mindset. Since mathematical and statistical data are integral to economics, the subject can also help you to develop and boost your numerical abilities.

Vast and dynamic, economics affords plenty of avenues for independent research. So, that was our take on the best economics project topics for class 12th as well as 11th and 10th. We provided everything – CBSE guidelines, tips, and project ideas – to make things easy and quick for you. For more such informative content, stay tuned. Give us your feedback in the comment section below.

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Rohit Kumar
Rohit Kumar
Passionate about content quality and attention to detail, Rohit has penned over 15,000 copies for some of the leading online and offline publications in his eight-year career. Currently heading the content team at Dunia Ka Gyan, he believes in team spirit, ingenuity, and reader satisfaction.

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