Saturday, December 10, 2022

Top History Project for Class 12th (Updated December 2022)

So, you have a history project for class 12 to complete. Well, let Duniakagyan come to your rescue.

History revisits the past, which allows us to make sense of the present and build a better future. No wonder, it is a key discipline in senior secondary education. The curriculum is designed to help you learn how historians gather, evaluate, verify, and put together the information to write history. While in class 11 you study global history, the class 12 curriculum deals with Indian history in detail.

Since the academic session 2013-14, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has made history project work mandatory for classes 11 & 12. The point is to allow you to research materials, and gather, analyze and present historical information. Simply put, the history project for 11th and 12th enables a better understanding of how to construct history. Plus, it takes learning out of the classroom, which helps develop cognitive skills and deepen students’ interest in the subject.

Want more reasons to pursue your history project seriously enough? Well, the written exam is worth 80 marks and internal assessment accounts for the rest 20 marks. Impressive project work can help you achieve better grades in internal assessment, which, in turn, leads to a better overall score. When the stakes are this high, you cannot take the project work lightly.

CBSE has laid down the following steps to conduct a history project for Class 12: 

  • Step-1: Select a suitable topic
  • Step-2: Detail the goals of the study
  • Step-3: Create a hypothesis
  • Step-4: Gather Content -Timeline, Maps, Pictures
  • Step-5: Organize the Material/Data
  • Step-6: Present the Material/Data
  • Step-7: Draw a logical conclusion upon analyzing the Material/Data
  • Step-8: Bibliography

Per CBSE, the expected checklist for the history project work:

  • Introduction of topic/title
  • Identifying the causes, events, consequences, and/or remedies
  • Various stakeholders and the effect on each of them
  • Advantages and disadvantages of situations or issues identified
  • Short-term and long-term implications of strategies suggested during research
  • Validity, reliability, appropriateness, and relevance of data used for research work
  • Presentation and writing that is succinct and coherent in the project file
  • Citation of the materials referred to, in the file in footnotes, resources section, bibliography etc.

Things to consider when creating a history project for class 12

Let’s elaborate on how you should go about creating a history project for class 12, in line with the CBSE guidelines. The idea is to make things easier, quicker, and more rewarding for you.

1. Select the Topic Wisely: 

In history, there is no dearth of topics to research. However, you need to choose the topic carefully, if you are keen on creating an impressive history project without investing much time and effort.

  1. The topic should interest you, as it is easier to work on something that holds your imagination.
  2. Keep in mind that you will be answering questions in Viva Voce related to the topic you choose.
  3. It needs to have plenty of material because you won’t like to waste time gathering data.
  4. Choosing a familiar topic can help you pull off the project work easily and quickly.
  5. A syllabus-related topic can help you prepare well for your written history exam.
  6. Avoid a lengthy or complicated topic if you lack sufficient time.

2. Research Well: 

Research is the most important and tedious aspect of the history project. Mind you, the depth of your research will determine the impact of your project. So, once you have identified your topic, it’s time to choose an appropriate historical research method. Visiting museums is the ideal way to get up close and personal with history. But if it’s not possible, go through historical records available at libraries. You can also refer to famous works of some modern historians to build an argument. 

You’ll  be researching two types of materials to derive information:

  • Primary Sources

Think of them as oral or penned eyewitness accounts of historical happenings. Recorded at the time when the event unfolded, the primary sources are reliable sources for interpreting history. These can be in form of letters, speeches, folk songs, legislations, interviews, newspaper & magazine columns, MOM, legal verdicts, drawings, photographs, diaries, biographies, relics, monuments, and more. You can access them at government archives, libraries, private collections, and elsewhere.

  • Secondary Sources

These are second-hand accounts of historical happenings, as they draw information from primary sources. While primary sources document an event, the secondary sources offer background and analysis of it. Although they aren’t as reliable as the primary ones, they help understand an event and shape an argument nonetheless. They come in form of newspaper articles & editorials, video & audio recordings, documentaries, encyclopedias, textbooks, and research works.

Tips: Try to base your history project on primary resources for the sake of authenticity. However, you’ll need secondary sources to build an argument and draw a logical conclusion. When surfing the internet for information, ensure the resource is credible, backed by proper references. Also, make a list of the resources you base your research on for the bibliography.

3. Organize the Data: 

Once the research is over, it’s time to organize all the information you gathered. Mind you, a well-organized project leaves a lasting impression and makes it easier for the evaluator to go through it.

Here’s how to keep the history project for class 12 concise, sharp, and coherent.

  • Introduce the topic with a quick reference to key information
  • Identify the reasons that led to the historical event
  • Elaborate on the event with proper dates and chronology
  • Analyze the consequences of the event on all stakeholders.
  • Detail the pros and cons of the event or issue
  • Draw a logical conclusion based on the information provided
  • Cite the sources in the footnotes, and in resources & bibliography sections.

Tips: Edit the researched material multiple times to ensure the presented data is valid, credible, appropriate, and relevant. Although history projects are theoretical, you can use pictures, charts, infographics, newspaper cuttings, and more to make it authentic, engaging, and in-depth.

4. Be Good with the Presentation: 

Presentation can be the difference between an ordinary and an impactful history project.

File Suggestions: 
  1. Ensure keeping the project work within 20 to 25 sheets.
  2. Use inter-leaf sheets for appropriate presentation of images and text.
  3. Avoid using colored sheets for the project body. Use them only for the title page.
  4. Prefer a properly covered shoe-lace file cover to hold the sheets together.
  5. Keep the file cover simple and tidy. At all costs, avoid over-embellishing it.
Writing Suggestions: 
  1. Handwrite the entire project, from start to finish.
  2. Do not use whiteners to rectify writing errors. Instead, rewrite the page.
  3. Discuss the topic in detail but don’t drag the information.
  4. Keep the paragraphs short and highlight key information.
  5. Ensure the content is sharp, verbose-free, and in active voice.
  6. Use pictures, figures, maps, graphs, and infographics wherever possible.
  7. Maintain consistency with the tense. Don’t hump between tenses frequently.
  8. Stick to facts and figures. Stay away from propaganda and negativity.

5. Final Layout:  

The history project work should have the following components in the suggested sequence:

  1. Front Page: It’s the first page of your history project work, typically bearing:

TITLE OF PROJECT, AUTHOR NAME, SCHOOL, ACADEMIC SESSION, & ROLL NO

2. Acknowledgment: In this section, you acknowledge the support of your teacher, school, or any person or institution in the completion of the project. Here is a sample for ready reference.

I …….(your name)……. would like to take the opportunity to show my gratitude towards my history teacher Mr./Ms./Mrs. …….(your teacher’s name)…….. for helping me at every step, from research to presentation. I would also like to thank …….(the name of a person or institute)……. for extending help for timely completion of the project.

3. Certificate: A dually signed certificate has to be there. Here’s a sample certificate:

This is to certify that …….…….. bearing roll number …….…….. of class 12 has successfully completed his/her project on topic …….…….. under the guidance of Mr./Miss/Mrs. ……….……. during the academic session….……. in line with the CBSE guidelines.

Note: Reserve the space below the certificate body for seal of the school, and signatures of external examiner & your teacher. The entire project is handwritten but feel free to print the certificate.  

4. Index: It’s a content table featuring what’s inside.

5. The Project Work: Herein, you present the information and shape arguments. It starts with an “Introduction” where you introduce the topic and state reasons for opting for it. Conclude it with an evidence-based, rational conclusion reached upon analyzing the material presented.

6. Bibliography: Last but not the least, state all references you used in the project.

Top History Project for Class 12

Now that the planning part is over, it’s time to choose a suitable topic for the history project for class 12.

1. Harappan Civilization

Harappan civilizationHarappan civilization or Indus-Sarasvati Civilization or simply Indus Valley Civilization was one of the world’s 3 oldest civilizations, alongside Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. The bronze-age civilization thrived between c. 7000 and c. 600 BCE on the banks of the Indus River in northwest India and eastern Pakistan. It was an advanced urban culture with systematically planned cities.

The Indus Valley civilization makes for a great history project topic for class 11 & 12. It’s an extensive and dynamic topic with new information flowing in regularly. So, there’s ample scope for research. You can either take up the entire civilization or pick a subtopic like town planning or artifacts.

Objectives:

  • Get a deeper understanding of a technologically and culturally advanced civilization
  • Getting familiar with the advances made in metallurgy, arts & crafts, and metrology
  • Understanding how artifacts are used to interpret and analyze history
  • Knowing how the grid system was used to plan urban centers

What to Include? 

  • Introduction:
Timeline  Location  Discovery 
  • Chronology: 
Pre-Harappan Early Harappan Mature Harappan
Late Harappan Post-Harappan
  • Urban Centers
Harappa Mohenjo-daro Ganeriwala
Dholavira Kalibangan Rakhigarhi
Rupar Lothal
  • Characteristics of city planning:
Grid system Citadels (Great Baths)  Granaries 
Roads  Type of Bricks Used 
  • Systems and social life:
Governance Society Religion
Trade & Commerce Agriculture Food
Language Writing Systems & More 
  • Sciences:
Metallurgy Metrology Calibration Brick Kilning 
  • Art & Crafts:
Bronze Vessels Seals Terracotta Figurines
Pottery Jewelry Bead Making
Shell Working Ceramics Toys & More 
  • Possible Reasons for the Downfall of IVC 
Drying up of Sarasvati River Climate change Aryan Invasion
Famine Flooding & More 
  • Conclusion: In this section, give your take on the IVC and elaborate on which reason you find the most plausible for IVC’s decline.
  • Tips: You can make a trip to the National Museum in Delhi a first-hand account of IVC artifacts. Also, discuss the possible uses of artifacts and how they help us interpret and understand history.

Suggested Reading:

  • Moen Jo Daro: Metropolis of the Indus civilization (2600-1900 BCE)
  • Harappa Excavation Reports 1986-1990
  • Trade winds to Meluha
  • Finding Forgotten Cities

Online Resources: 

  • https://www.worldhistory.org/Indus_Valley_Civilization/
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilisation
  • https://byjus.com/cbse-notes/class-6-social-science-history-chapter-3-in-the-earliest-cities/
  • https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-hccc-worldcivilization/chapter/cities-of-the-indus-valley-civilization/

2. Critical Analysis of Mahabharata

Critical Analysis of Mahabharata

Mahabharata is more than just an epic. Rather, it is a masterpiece in literature, a window into the past, and a source of wisdom. With 1 lakh Shlokas, 2 lakh verse lines, and a word count of 1.8 million, it is the world’s longest epic. The epic touches practically every emotion and situation conceivable in personal and state affairs, which makes it the greatest story ever told. Despite a complicated plot and larger than life characters, it takes a balanced look at people, kinship, societies, and statecraft.

Objectives: 

  • You will gain a new perspective on the social, political, and cultural life in ancient India.
  • Its your opportunity to know the epic’s different versions, translations, & derivative works.
  • A critical analysis will allow you to get familiar with ways to derive history from literary works.

What to Include?

  • Introduction:
Basic Information Textual Background
  • Structure: 
18 Parvas Harivamsha Accretion
Redaction Popular Stories Summary
  • Mahabharata in Popular Culture:
Translations Regional Adaptations Jain Version
Derivative Works Comparative Works Comic Adaptation
Inspired Dances TV and Cinema Folklores
  • What it tells us about 
Caste System Polity Culture
Status of Women Social Norms Types of Marriages
Kinship  Property Rights 

Tips: For more impact, you can depict the Kuru family tree & 18 Parvas in a table format. Also, provide a passing reference to the types of marriages prevalent in ancient India. Don’t forget to evaluate the historicity and importance of Mahabharata in the Conclusion section. Detailing the art forms that retell the Mahabharata stories is also a good idea to highlight the epic’s cultural impact.

Suggested Reading: 

  • “Mahabharata,” The Chambers Dictionary
  • Retelling by C Rajagopalachari
  • The Kaunteyas by Madhavi. S Mahadevan
  • The Curse of Gandhari by Aditi Banerjee
  • A Broken Sun by Aditya Iyengar

Online Resources:

  • https://www.livemint.com/Sundayapp/0dhd6sLQWkG4T1i5qbsjrI/The-Mahabharata-seen-in-the-clear-light-of-reason.html
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahabharata#:~:text=The%20Mah%C4%81bh%C4%81rata%20is%20the%20longest,)%2C%20and%20long%20prose%20passages
  • https://study.com/academy/lesson/mahabharata-summary-characters.html#:~:text=Mahabharata%20revolves%20around%20the%20belief,the%20world%20is%20short%20lived

3. Ashokan Administration

Ashokan Administration

Ashoka The Great held sway over a massive empire extending from modern-day Afghanistan in the west to Bangladesh in the east. Despite the vastness, the empire was well-governed through laws based on Dhamma, progressive taxation system, and efficient civil services. Rather, history credits Ashoka for creating the first ever documented welfare state with safe roads, schools, hospitals, public wells, farmer loans, elaborate irrigation system, rest houses for travelers, and more.

Short yet informative, this is an ideal topic for history project for class 12 if you are short on time.

Objectives:

  • The project will help you understand how Ashoka administered such a vast empire
  • You also get a closer look at aspects of politics, society, religion & more in ancient India

What to Include? 

  • Introduction:
Who was Ashoka Ancestry Historical background Extent of his empire   
  • Ashoka’s Relationship with Buddhism: 
Rein before embracing Buddhism Kalinga war
First contact with Buddhism Rein after embracing Buddhism
  • Central Government: 
Centralized system Mantriparishad
Mantriparishad-Adhyakshya Tirthas
Adhyakshya Mahamattas
Amatyas Lower level officials 
  • Local Administration:
Village  Gramika Pradeshika Sthanika
Durgapala Antapala Akshapatala Lipikaras
  • Law & Order: 
    Police system  Prison system 
  • Revenue:
Revenue Department Revenue %age Revenue Sources
Samharta Sannidhata
  • Spy System:
Role of spies Mahamatyapasarpa Sansthana
Sanchari Gudhapurushas Vishakanyas

Tips: Write a short note on welfare activities, land reforms, farmer loans, and foreign trade laws implemented by Ashoka. This will not only add depth to the project work but also help you derive a conclusion. Also, mention edicts, seals and other sources of information on Ashoka’s administration.

Suggested Reading:

  • Ashoka The Great by Wyzte Keuning
  • Ashoka, The Search for India’s Lost Emperor by Charles Allen
  • Ashoka and The Decline of The Mauryas by Romila Thapar

Online Resources:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ashoka
  • https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/ncert-notes-mauryan-administration/
  • https://prepp.in/news/e-492-ashokas-administration-and-economy-ancient-india-history-notes

4. Akbarnama

Akbarnama

The Akbarnama is a well-illustrated Persian manuscript depicting the life and times of Akbar. In this biography, the author, Abu’l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, traces the roots of Mughal empire back to the Timur Dynasty while also detailing contemporary events. In three volumes, Akbarnama takes us through the religious, cultural, and socio-economic landscape during Akbar’s reign. Although Akbar ordered the creation of Akbarnama, it is an important source for medieval Indian history nonetheless.

Objectives: 

  • A history project on Akbarnama will give you insights on the social, political, cultural, and economic conditions during Akbar’s reign.
  • It will help you extract history from a biography written at the emperor’s behest by his court historian & biographer.

What to Include? 

  • Introduction: 

The section should cover all the basic information, such as who wrote it & when, Naksh Script, and the chronology of the biography’s whereabouts.

  • About the Author:
Ancestry Education Court Status Other Works
  • Volume 1: 
Story of Akbar’s birth Akbar’s upbringing His Lineage
  • Volume 2:
Humayun (Exile and Recapturing Power) 2nd Battle of Panipat
Akbar’s accession to the throne  Akbar’s reign till 1602
  • Volume 3: The Ain-I-Akbari
Extent of the empire  Revenue System The Royal Household 
Hindu religion Army & More 
  • The Akbarnama of Faizi Sirhindi:
  • Translations in English & Other Languages:

Tips: You are better off mentioning the paintings in the biography, what they depict, and how they enriched the Indian art. Also, give a passing reference to Henry Beveridge’s English translation.

Suggested Readings: 

  • The Akbarnama of Abu-L-Fazl by Henry Beveridge

Online Sources:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akbarnama
  • https://smarthistory.org/akbarnama/
  • https://hkeshani.github.io/darc/akbarnama/

5. Mughal Harems 

Harem Politics

Harem was an important part of Mughal emperors’ private & family lives. Contrary to the popular perception, it served a lot bigger function than just housing emperors’ wives and female relatives. It was a forbidden place for “outsiders” but a town in itself replete with markets, madrasas, kitchens, baths, playgrounds, and more. All the royal kids were born and raised in the confines of an imperial harem. Despite being a closely guarded space, it was open to speculations, intrigue and politics.

Objectives:

  • The prime objective is to understand the hierarchy and function of the Mughal harems
  • The project work will help bust misconceptions and speculations around the imperial harems.

What to Include? 

  • Introduction:

In this section, provide a definition of a harem, followed by its etymology, which should include it’s origins in Arabic, Persian & Turkish culture. Also, give a passing reference to a harem’s functions.

  • Characteristics:
Ladies of harems Hierarchy & Rules
Physical Features of the designated area  Employees (eunichs & slaves) 
  • Functions:
Emperor’s gratification Protection to women & kids
Economic Activities Nursery for royal Kids
  • Reforms:

In this section, elaborate on Akbar’s reforms and restructuring of harems.

  • Major Sources of Information:

Mention a few authentic sources that detail the functioning of harems, notably Humayun Nama. 

  • Conclusion:

Herein, you can built an argument for or against the ideal of seclusion that harems stood for.

Tips: You can always consider providing Pre-Islamic origins of harems in the Introduction session. Plus, discuss the role of eunuchs in the management of harems and how harems promoted slavery. If time permits, you can also consider researching the influence some harem women wielded.

Suggested Readings:

  • The Mughal Harems by KS Lal
  • The Women of Mughal Harems by Sugandha Rawat
  • The Mughal Harem: Secrets Untold by Vama Gaur

Online Resources:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mughal_Harem
  • https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/bengaluru/2013/nov/28/Inside-the-harem-of-the-mughals-542659.html
  • https://www.dailyo.in/variety/mughal-royal-harem-voyeurism-erotic-instincts-shah-jahan-14650
  • https://servantspasts.wordpress.com/2019/08/12/third-gender-and-service-in-mughal-court-and-harem/

6. Revolt Of 1857

Revolt 1857

The Revolt of 1857 is an important event in the modern history. What started as a sepoy munity went on to become a a major uprising that changed the course of history. Even though the British managed to suppress the revolt with brute force, it marks the beginning of the Indian nationalism, which culminated in the independence of India in 1947. Such a key event deserves a history project for class 12. However, if you find it too vast, feel free to cover selective parts for the project.

Objectives:

  • The project will help you trace the origin of anti-colonial movement in India.
  • It will allow you to understand the causes, extent and result of the uprising.
  • You will be able to build an argument for or against calling it the 1st war of independence.

What to Include? 

  • Introduction:

In this section, mention when & where the munity started, it’s spread, and immediate cause. Also, provide a brief background of the British East India Company’s expansion in the subcontinent.

  • Religious, Social & Political Causes:
Racial Discrimination in Army  Doctrine of Lapse
Policy of misgovernance Forced Socio-religious reforms
Introduction of modern education Heavy Taxation on peasants 
Ill-treatment of landowners and princes Discriminatory economic policies
  • Eruption and Spread of the Revolt: Timeline 
Enfield Rifles Initial Stages Annexation of Delhi Spread to other provinces 
  • Regions & Regional Leaders: 
Delhi  Kanpur Awadh Jhansi
Assam Bengal Orissa Punjab
Bihar Tripura Gujarat Indore
  • Suppression: 

Herein, you should detail how British suppressed the revolt with the help of local kings. Also, elaborate on the lack of unity, coordination, planning, and ammunitions the rebels faced.

  • Consequences:
Death and Destruction End of Mughal Empire Scrapping Board of Control
Government of India Act 1858 Military Reforms
  • The revolt in popular culture:  
Cinema TV series plays novels poetry folk songs
  • Conclusion:

Conclude the project work with your take on the nomenclature – whether to call it a Sepoy Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, or the 1st war of Indian independence. Back your argument with reasons.

Tips: You can consider providing a passing reference of the Vellore mutiny to trace the history of discontentment in British-Indian armed forces. Also, mention the atrocities both sides committed.

Suggested Readings:

  • Mutiny Memoirs by Col. A.R.D. Mackenzie
  • Great Mutiny by Christopher Hibbert
  • The Indian Mutiny of 1857 George Bruce Malleson
  • The Skull of Alum Bheg by Kim A. Wagner

Online Resources: 

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Rebellion_of_1857
  • https://byjusexamprep.com/revolt-of-1857-i
  • https://www.nam.ac.uk/explore/why-did-indian-mutiny-happen
  • https://www.britannica.com/event/Indian-Mutiny

7. Urbanization of Colonial India 

Colonial Cities

While city centers continue to exist since antiquity, the urbanization picked pace In India only in the 19th century under the colonial rule. Once insignificant fishing hamlets, Madras (Chennai), Calcutta (Kolkata) and Bombay (Mumbai) emerged as the leading urban centers where culture, commerce and education flourished. The colonial rulers also came up with a variety of cities that served a variety of purposes. Some were hill towns, some industrial towns, and some, cantonment towns.

Tracing the urbanization of India could be a great history project idea for class 12.

Objectives:
  • The project will help you understand how different cities evolved during the colonial rule.
  • It will help you get familiar with the characteristics of colonial urban centers.
  • Also, you will get insights into the social changes that urbanization has brought.

What to Include?  

  • Introduction: 

Introduce the project with a brief insight into the cities of the pre-colonial era, which will serve as a background to the need for urbanization. It’s advisable to offer a passing reference to the decline of Delhi and Agra. Also, provide figures related to urbanization in 19th-century India.

  • Why Colonial Towns were built?  
Promote Trade & Commerce Strengthen Administration Leisure Activities
Boost Military preparedness Build Infrastructure
  • How growth was tracked?

In this section, provide details about the importance of record keeping in tracking the growth of colonial cities. Don’t forget to mention the all-India Census started in 1887 to map the population.

  • Types of Colonial Towns:
Hill Towns Railway Station Towns Industrial Cities Cantonment Towns
Court Towns Presidency Cities Port Cities 
  • Prominent Architectural Styles: 
Neoclassical Gothic Revival Baroque Indo-Saracenic 
  • The Impact of Urbanization: 
Spread of Education Growth of Nationalism
Emergence of Middle class Inflow of Rural migration
Businessmen as the new elites New avenues for recreation* 

*Herein, you can relate the emergence of clubs, racecourses and other avenues of recreation to the changing urban lifestyle. 

  • Conclusion:

Upon analyzing the material, you can draw a logical justification for the establishment of colonial cities  across India and their prime characteristics. Don’t forget to take up the colonial records that trace the urban history.

Tips: When writing about the need for developing towns, make it clear that British did it for their own sake. However, these colonial cities later became the epicenter of anti-colonial movements.

Suggested Reading:

  • COLONIAL CITY AND THE CHALLENGE OF MODERNITY by Hazareesingh Sandip
  • NCERT Text Book Class 12th

Online Sources:

  • https://ncert.nic.in/textbook/pdf/lehs303.pdf
  • http://ijrar.com/upload_issue/ijrar_issue_1586.pdf
  • https://www.oneyoungindia.com/class-12-history/colonial-cities-notes
  • https://unacademy.com/content/upsc/study-material/ncert-notes/features-of-colonial-cities/

8. The Human Aspect of Partition of India

Partition of India

1947 was a landmark year in the history of the subcontinent. On one hand, it gained freedom from the British imperial rule, while on the other, it got partitioned into two dominions, India & Pakistan. While 77.3% of the total assets went to India, the remaining were claimed by Pakistan. However, it wasn’t a partition of assets only, as a significant percentage of the population migrated across borders. Eventually, it turned out to be the bloodiest partitions in the history of mankind.

As partition is a sensitive topic, it can be a wonderful history project for class 12.

Objectives: 

  • It will help you know the catastrophe of partition with 20 million displaced and 2 million dead.
  • You will explore the causes, actors, processes, and basis of partition.

What to Include? 

  • Introduction:

Introduce the project with all basic details of partition, including division of assets, two nation theory, the Indian Independence Act, and more. Also, provide relevant stats related to deaths and displacement to develop a narrative against such disasters, and bring human aspect to the fore.

  • Reasons for the Partition: 
Role of Muslim League Support for the two nation theory
Acceptance of Indian National Congress Hindu Reaction &  Communal Violence
  • Historical Background:
Emergence of the two-nation theory: 1924 Cripps Mission 1940
Quit India Resolution: 1942 Change of Government in Great Britain
Provincial Polls: 1946 Cabinet Mission: 1946
Direct Action Day: 1946 Plan for partition: 1946–1947
The Indian Independence Act Radcliffe Line
Mountbatten Plan Punjab Boundary Commission
  • Execution of Partition and Violence 

In this section, provide data on the migration and violence that followed the independence of India. Also, provide a short reference to the resettlement of the displaced population in both dominions.

  • Impacted Provinces:  
Punjab Bengal Sindh Gujarat Delhi  J&K 
  • Partition in popular culture: 
Cinema TV series Theater Fiction Poetry Folk Art
  • Conclusion:

In this section, you can mention how the travesty of partition could have been avoided or at least minimized.

Tips: Plenty of partition-related pictures and stats are readily available on the internet. So, make the most of them. For impactful project work, you can also provide a timeline of events that led to the partition. Don’t forget to present maps depicting India before and after the partition.

Suggested Reading:

  • Memories of Madness by Khushwant Singh
  • Midnight’s Children by Salman Rushdie
  • The Great Partition by Yasmin Khan
  • Midnight’s Furies by Nisid Hajari

Online Sources:

  • https://www.partitionmuseum.org/partition-of-india/
  • https://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-62467438
  • https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/06/29/the-great-divide-books-dalrymple
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Partition_of_India#:~:text=The%20Partition%20of%20India%20in,assets%20was%20on%20the%20agreed
  • https://scholarblogs.emory.edu/postcolonialstudies/2014/06/21/partition-of-india/

9. Constitution Framing

Constitution FramingWE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA

The constitution of India is perhaps the most important, extensive and progressive document ever written in the subcontinent. Upon 11 sessions of deliberation, the 299 member committee came up with the final draft, which was adopted on 26 November 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India. However, it became effective on 25th January 1950. How the constitution came into being is an engaging story that needs to be told through a well-researched history project for class 12.

Objectives:

  • The project informs you about the events, processes, and people that created the constitution.
  • It will also help you know which constitutions influenced constitution of India.

What to Include? 

  • Introduction:

The introduction section should include the basic information on the constitution, such as date of ratification and implementation, what it declares & guarantees, and a passing reference of the acts it replaced. Also, discuss the whereabouts of the original document, who handwrote it, total expenditure it incurred, the first and last signatories, and other relevant information.

  • Structure:
Preamble 22 Parts 448 Articles 12 Schedules 5 Appendices 115 Amendments
  • Historical Background: 

In this section, mention briefly the previous legislations, notably the Govt. of India Act 1935 & Indian Independence Act 1947. Also, mention the Nehru Report presented in the All Parties Conference in Lucknow in 1928. You can also list the articles implemented on 26th November 1949 and why.

  • Constituent Assembly:

Create a timeline for all the events that led to the creation of the constituent assembly, from the emergence of the idea in December 1934 to implementation of the constitution in 1950. Providing details of the members of the constituent assembly is also important for impactful project work.

  • Bag of Borrowings: 

The Indian constitution is termed as a “Bag of Borrowings” because it has taken so much from constitutions of:

US Canada UK Ireland France Japan Germany USSR & more

Note: Time permitting, you can mention what was acquired from which constitution. 

  • Critics and Supporters: 

Herein, you can mention prominent voices for and against the constitution of India.

  • Conclusion:

Upon critically analyzing the pros & cons, you should present your take on the constitution of India.

Suggested Reading:

  • The Framing of India’s Constitution by B. Shiva Rao 
  • The Indian Constituent Assembly by Udit Bhatia
  • Voices in the Wilderness by Anjoo Balhara Sharma 

Online Sources:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constitution_of_India
  • http://www.mati.gov.in/docs/Constitution_of_India.pdf
  • https://byjus.com/free-ias-prep/evolution-and-framing-of-the-constitution/
  • https://prepp.in/news/e-492-criticism-of-indian-constitution-indian-polity-notes
  • https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-3061-framing-of-indian-constitution.html

10. Vijayanagara: An Imperial Capital

Vijayanagara: An Imperial Capital

Vijayanagar was both an empire and an imperial city that existed from 1336 to 1565 in South India. Unlike north India, the Vijayanagar empire resisted constant Muslim invasions and helped nurture Hindu life and administration. It emerged as the most powerful and prosperous empire known for its town planning, an elaborate water distribution system, and some majestic structures. As one of the world’s ten leading cities, Vijayanagar attracted traders and travelers from across the world.

Objectives: 

  • The project will allow you a deeper understanding of a prosperous and powerful empire.
What to Include? 
  • Introduction:

Give a brief description of the empire’s time period, founders, geographical location, extent, and more. Also, mention the historical importance of Hampi and its status as the World Heritage site.

  • Rediscovery & Preservation:

Elaborate on the roles of a few prominent people in rediscovery & preservation of the Hampi relics.

People  Role 
Colin Mackenzie Discovery of the remains of Hampi
Alexander Greenlaw First comprehensive photography of Hampi
J.F. Fleet Compilation & Documentation of the inscription
John Marshall  Conservation of the Hampi Relics 
  • History of Vijayanagar City:
    • Ancient Pilgrimage Center:
Pampa Tirtha Kishkinda
    • The Ruling Dynasties:  
Sangama Saluvas Tuluva Aravidu
  • The Empire’s Rise Under Krishnadeva Raya: 
History of Krishnadeva Raya  Conquests  Administration  Art & Literature 
  • City Planning & Architecture: 
Town Planning Fortification Gateways Temples
Mahanavmi Box Meeting Halls Palaces Watch Towers
Water Distribution System Courtly Buildings

Tips: You can provide a passing reference to the legend of Parvati (Pampa) and her beloved Shiva mentioned in Sthala Purana in the “Ancient Pilgrimage Center” section. Feel free to cite accounts of the Portuguese and Persian traders about the city planning, architecture, people, and more.

Suggested Reading:
  • Hampi by George Michell
  • The Forgotten Empire by Robert Sewell
  • Sources of Vijayanagar History by S. Krishna Swami Aiyangar
Online Sources:
  • https://www.britannica.com/place/Vijayanagar
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vijayanagara
  • https://notes.crisscrossclasses.com/class-12-history-chapter-7-notes-in-english/
  • https://mycbseguide.com/blog/imperial-capital-vijayanagara-class-12-notes-history/

Conclusion

So, we come to an end of a comprehensive list of the best history project for class 12 topics. Our experts handpicked the best 10 topics to let you choose the one suiting your unique requirements. With CBSE guidelines for a history projects and key factors to consider, we just tried to make things quicker and simpler for you. After all, your convenience matters to us at Duniakagyan.

Please feel free to provide feedback in the comments section below.

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Anamika Kalwan
Anamika Kalwan
I am a logophile who loves to write. With an experience of 3+ years, I have passionately contributed my expertise and knowledge to create content in the field of Technical and E-learning based Content Writing.I am a logophile who loves to write. With an experience of 3+ years, I have passionately contributed my expertise and knowledge to create content in the field of Technical and E-learning based Content Writing.

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